Black pepper, also known as Piper nigrum, is a perennial climbing vine native to South India. The berries of the plant are used for medicinal and culinary purposes. Black pepper has been traditionally used to help improve digestion and to help reduce symptoms of bloating and gas, it is believed to have carminative properties. It is also traditionally used to help reduce symptoms of pain, particularly in the digestive tract and to help reduce symptoms of menopause. Black pepper is also believed to have antioxidant properties and may help to protect cells from damage. Black pepper is also traditionally used to help reduce symptoms of respiratory issues such as asthma and bronchitis, it is believed to have expectorant properties.